REFERENCE
UPDATED 4/17/03


Common abbreviations, found in used vehicle ads :


2WD = 2Wheel Drive
4WD = 4Wheel Drive
AWD = All Wheel Drive
AC = Air Conditioning
CC = Cruise Control
CAT = Catalytic Converter
EFI = Electronic Fuel Injection
FI = Fuel Injected
GVWR = Gross Vehicle Weight Rating
HD = Heavy Duty
HD EMISS = Heavy Duty Emissions
HM =Heated Mirrors
HP = Horsepower
MAN = Manual (steering/brakes, trans. usually)
OHC= Overhead Cam
PB = Power Brakes
PL,PDL = Power Door Locks
PM = Power Mirrors
PS = Power Steering
PW = Power Windows
STD = Standard TPI = Tuned Port Injection
TBI = Throttle Body Injection
TW or TILT = Tilt steering Wheel
HEI = High Energy Ignition
L.O.F. = Lube,Oil,and change Filter
O2 Sensor = Oxygen sensor
R/R or R & R = Remove Replace
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Bolt threads and wiring

AWG = American Wire Gauge
AN = American National
ANSSTS =American National Standard Screw Thread Series
BSF = BritishStandard Fine
BSW = British Std Whitworth
BSW = Browne & Sharpe Wire Gauge
BWG = Birmingham Wire Gauge
HSS = High Speed Steel
IWG = Imperial Wire Gauge
LH = Left Hand threads (commonly found on bolt heads if LH)
NC = National Coarse
NF = National Fine
NS = National Special
NPT = National Pipe Thread
TPI = Threads Per Inch (Bolts) Teeth Per Inch (Saw Blades)
USS = United States Standard (Replaced by National Standard)
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Associations, Organizations, and Departments

ANSI = American National Standards Institute
ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASA = American Standards Association
ASE = Automotive Service Excellence
ASHRAC = American Society of Heating,Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
ASME = American Society of Mechanical Engineers
AWS = American Welding Society
DOT = Department of Transportation
NFPA = National Fire Protection Association
SAE = Society of Automotive Engineers
UL = Underwriters Labrotories
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Chain and Cable ratings

Chain
Normal Temp with Verticle Pull
Diameter Weight Lbs/foot Safe Load Lbs Breaking Point Lbs
1/4 0.10 675 4,800
5/16" 0.16 1000 7,400
3/8" 0.23 1,500 10,600
7/16" 0.31 2,000 14,400
1/2" 0.40 2,400 18,700
9/16" 0.51 3,300 23,600
5/8" 0.63 4,000 29,000
3/4" 0.90 6,000 41,400
7/8" 1.23 8,000 56,000
1" 1.60 10,000 72,800


These are guideline figures. Chain varies.

If you know the weight rating of yours, NEVER EXCEED IT!


Cable ( 6 Strand X 19 Wire)

Normal Temp with Verticle Pull
Rod dia. Weight Lbs/foot Safe Load Lbs Breaking point Lbs
1/4" 0.75 1200 5000
5/16" 1 1700 7000
3/8" 1.5 2500 10,000
7/16" 2 3500 14,000
1/2" 2.5 4500 18,000

Keep in mind these figures are for VERTICAL PULLING. I WOULD CONSIDER THAT LIFTING. PLEASE STICK TO ANY RATINGS YOU KNOW FOR YOUR CHAINS AND CABLES.

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Engine Oils

Here's a chart for Oils. Yes means that viscosity can be used. Always follow manufacturers requirements. This is a guideline only. Check your owners manual.

Engine Oil SAE Viscosity Outside Temperature *F
-20 0 20 40 60 80 100
20w-20 no no yes yes yes yes yes
20w-40 no no yes yes yes yes yes
20w-50 no no yes yes yes yes yes
10w-30 no yes yes yes yes yes yes
10w-40 no yes yes yes yes yes yes
10 no yes yes yes yes no no
5w-30 yes yes yes yes no no
5w-20 yes yes no no no no no


Gear Oil
Gear Oil SAE Viscosity Outside Temperature
-20 0 20 40 60 80 100
75w yes yes yes yes no no no
80w yes yes yes yes yes yes no
80w-90 yes yes yes yes yes yes yes
85w no no yes yes yes yes no
90 no no no no yes yes yes
140 no no no no yes yes yes


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So you want to run airlines around your shop. Put a chuck by the door,etc....

Get out your tape measure !

Air Flow CFM Length of Air Line in Feet
50 100 200 300
Recommended Air Line Size (dia in.)
1 - 5 1/2 " 1/2 1/2 1/2 6 - 10 1/2 3/4 3/4 3/4
11 - 15 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4
16 - 20 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4
21 - 25 3/4 3/4 1 1
26 - 30 3/4 3/4 1 1
31 - 35 3/4 1 1 1
36 - 40 1 1 1 1
41 - 59 1 1 1 1
60 - 79 1 1 1 - 1 -
80 - 100 1 - 1 - 1 - 1/2 1 - 1/2


A little more about air.......

Feet above Sea Level Temp *F Atmospheric pressure lbf/sq in
0 59.0 14.70
820 56.1 14.26
1640 53.2 13.85
2461 50.2 13.44
3281 47.3 13.03
4101 44.4 12.64
4921 41.5 12.26
5742 38.5 11.9
6562 35.6 11.53
8202 29.8 10.83
9843 23.9 10.17
11483 18.1 9.54
13123 12.2 8.94
14764 6.4 8.38


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Maximum wire lengths for automotive wiring


Wire Gauge AWGCurrent Load in amps@ 12v DC
1amp 2 4 6 8 10
20ga. 106ft 53 26 17 13 nr
18 15075 3725 18 15
16 22411256 3728 22
14 36218190 6045 36
12572 286 143 95 7157
10 908 454 227 151 113 90
0 9708 4854 2427 1616 1213 970
I skip to zero gauge, since the data is not useful beyond this point.

Continued

Wire Gauge AWGCurrent Load in amps@ 12v DC
12amps 15 20 50 100 200
20ga. nr nr nr nr nr nr
18 12 nr nr nr nr nr
16 18 14 nr nr nr nr
14 30 24 18 nr nr nr
12 47 38 28 nr nr nr
10 75 60 45 nr nr nr
8 120 96 72 29 nr nr
6 194 155 117 46 23 nr
4 307 246 185 74 37 nr
2 503 403 303 121 60 30
1 638 511 384 153 76 38
0 805 645 485 194 97 48
000 1296 1039 781 312 156 78
nr = NOT recomended


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Making, Shaping, and Treating of Steel

Anneal = To soften a metal piece and remove internal stresses by heating to it's critical temperature and allowing to cool slowly.

Carburize = To prepare a low-carbon steel for heat treatment by packing in a box with carburizing material, such as wood charcoal, and heating to about 2000 degrees F for several hours, then allowing to cool slowly

Case Harden = To harden the surface of carburized steel by heating to critical temperature and quenching, as in oil or lead bath.

Drop forged = A wrought piece formed hot between dies under a drop hammer, or by pressure.

Forge = To shape metal while hot and plastic by a hammering or forcing process either by hand or machine.

Galvanize = To treat with a bath of lead and zinc.

Harden = To heat hardenable steel above the critical temperature and quench in a bath.

Temper = To change the physical characteristics of hardened steel by reheating to a temperature below the critical point, and allowing to cool.
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Various measures for Steel sheet metal

Gauge Number Steel Weight Lbs per sq ft Thickness Inches Weight Lbs/sq ft
US Standard Gauge Manufacturers Standard Galvanized Sheet Stainless Steel
14 3.12 0.0781 0.0747 3.2812 3.2187
16 2.50 0.0625 0.0598 2.6562 2.5750
18 2.00 0.0500 0.0478 2.1562 2.0600
20 1.50 0.0375 0.0359 1.65 1.5450
22 1.25 0.0312 0.0299 1.4062 1.2875

AIR = Air Injection Reactor
CCA = Cold Cranking Amps (in reference to batteries)
CEC = Combined Emission Control
CCS = Controlled Combustion System
ECM = Electronic Control Module
EFE = Early Fuel Evaporation
EGR = Exhaust Gas Recirculation
ETS = Engine Temperature Sensor (on Diesels)
HEI = High Energy Ignition
L.O.F. = Lube Front End, change engine Oil, and change oil Filter
O2 Sensor = Oxygen sensor
PCV = Positive Crankcase Ventilation
R/R or R & R = Remove Replace
TAC = Thermostatic Air Cleaner
TCS = Transmission Controlled Spark
TRC = Throttle Return Control
TVS = Thermal Vacuum Switch
VRV = Vacuum Regulator Valve (Diesels)

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Steel Plate Weight per Square Foot

3/16" ======7.65 Lbs
1/4========10.20
5/16=======12.75
3/8========15.30
7/16=======17.85
1/2========20.40
1"=========40.80

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Round Steel Tubing

OD Size x wall thickness``````Weight per linear Foot
7/8" x 0.083```````````````````````0.7021 Lbs
======x 0.095```````````````````````0.7914
======x 0.109```````````````````````0.8917
======x 0.120```````````````````````0.9676
1=====x 0.083```````````````````````0.8129
======x 0.095```````````````````````0.9182
======x 0.109```````````````````````1.037
======x 0.120```````````````````````1.128
======x 0.250```````````````````````2.003
1-1/4 x 0.109```````````````````````1.328
======x 0.120```````````````````````1.448
1-1/2 x 0.095```````````````````````1.426
======x 0.109```````````````````````1.619
======x 0.250```````````````````````3.338
2=====x 0.095```````````````````````1.933
======x 0.120```````````````````````2.409
2-1/2 x 0.095```````````````````````2.440
======x 0.120```````````````````````3.050
..............0.120 = 11 ga
..............0.083 = 14 ga
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Tools & Supplies by Eastwood

Tools & Supplies by Eastwood - This is the place the Pro's go. Too much to list here.


Reference Page 2


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